Basis for preparation of the financial statements and basic accounting principles
The consolidated financial statements of MYTILINEOS S.A. as of December 31st 2021 covering the entire 2021 fiscal year, have been compiled based on the historic cost principle as amended by the readjustment of specific asset and liability items into market values, the going concern principle and are in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) that have been issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and their interpretations that have been issued by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) of the IASB.
According to the IFRS, the preparation of the Financial Statements requires estimations during the application of the Group’s accounting principles. Important admissions are presented wherever it has been judged appropriate.
The reporting currency is Euro (currency of the country of the domicile of the parent Company) and all amounts are reported in thousands unless stated otherwise.
The accounting principles and calculations based upon under the preparation of the consolidated financial statements are the same as those applied for the preparation of the annual consolidated financial statements for FY ended as at 31 December 2020 and successively applied to all the presented periods. The amendment of IAS 19 "Employee Benefits" has been applied in consolidated financial statements. The effect of the amendment is presented below.
1 New Standards, Interpretations, Revisions and Amendments to existing Standards that are effective and have been adopted by the European Union
The following new Standards, Interpretations and amendments of IFRSs have been issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), are adopted by the European Union, and their application is mandatory from or after 01/01/2021.
Amendments to IFRS 4 "Insurance Contracts" — deferral of IFRS 9 (effective for annual periods starting on or after 01/01/2021)
In June 2020, the IASB issued amendments that declare deferral of the date of initial application of IFRS 17 by two years, to annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2023. As a consequence, the IASB also extended the fixed expiry date for the temporary exemption from applying IFRS 9 "Financial Instruments" in IFRS 4 "Insurance Contracts", so that the entities are required to apply IFRS 9 for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2023. The amendments do not affect the consolidated and separate Financial Statements.
Amendments to IFRS 9, IAS 39, IFRS 7, IFRS 4 and IFRS 16: "Interest Rate Benchmark Reform — Phase 2″ (effective for annual periods starting on or after 01/01/2021)
In August 2020, the IASB has finalized its response to the ongoing reform of IBOR and other interest benchmarks by issuing a package of amendments to IFRS Standards. The amendments complement those issued in 2019 and focus on the effects on financial statements when a company replaces the old interest rate benchmark with an alternative benchmark rate as a result of the reform. More specifically, the amendments relate to how a company will account for changes in the contractual cash flows of financial instruments, how it will account for a change in its hedging relationships as a result of the reform, as well as relevant information required to be disclosed. The amendments do not affect the consolidated and separate Financial Statements.
Amendments to IFRS 16 "Leases": Covid-19 — Related Rent Concessions beyond 30 June 2021 (effective for annual periods starting on or after 01/04/2021)
In March 2021, the IASB issued amendments to the practical expedient of IFRS 16, that extend the application period by one year to cover Covid-19-related rent concessions that reduce only lease payments due on or before 30 June 2022. The amendments do not affect the consolidated and separate Financial Statements.
2 New Standards, Interpretations, Revisions and Amendments to existing Standards that have not been applied yet or have not been adopted by the European Union
The following new Standards, Interpretations and amendments of IFRSs have been issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), but their application has not started yet or they have not been adopted by the European Union.
Amendments to IFRS 3 "Business Combinations", IAS 16 "Property, Plant and Equipment", IAS 37 "Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets" and "Annual Improvements 2018-2020″ (effective for annual periods starting on or after 01/01/2022)
In May 2020, the IASB issued a package of amendments which includes narrow-scope amendments to three Standards as well as the Board’s Annual Improvements, which are changes that clarify the wording or correct minor consequences, oversights or conflicts between requirements in the Standards. More specifically:
— Amendments to IFRS 3 Business Combinations update a reference in IFRS 3 to the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting without changing the accounting requirements for business combinations.
— Amendments to IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment prohibit a company from deducting from the cost of property, plant and equipment amounts received from selling items produced while the company is preparing the asset for its intended use. Instead, a company will recognize such sales proceeds and related cost in profit or loss.
— Amendments to IAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets specify which costs a company includes when assessing whether a contract will be loss-making.
— Annual Improvements 2018-2020 make minor amendments to IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards, IFRS 9 Financial Instruments, IAS 41 Agriculture and the Illustrative Examples accompanying IFRS 16 Leases.
The Group will examine the impact of the above on its Financial Statements, though it is not expected to have any (to be adapted in respect of every Group/Company). The above have been adopted by the European Union with effective date of 01/01/2022.
IFRS 17 "Insurance Contracts" (effective for annual periods starting on or after 01/01/2023)
In May 2017, the IASB issued a new Standard, IFRS 17, which replaces an interim Standard, IFRS 4. The aim of the project was to provide a single principle-based standard to account for all types of insurance contracts, including reinsurance contracts that an insurer holds. A single principle-based standard would enhance comparability of financial reporting among entities, jurisdictions and capital markets. IFRS 17 sets out the requirements that an entity should apply in reporting information about insurance contracts it issues and reinsurance contracts it holds. Furthermore, in June 2020, the IASB issued amendments, which do not affect the fundamental principles introduced when IFRS 17 has first been issued. The amendments are designed to reduce costs by simplifying some requirements in the Standard, make financial performance easier to explain, as well as ease transition by deferring the effective date of the Standard to 2023 and by providing additional relief to reduce the effort required when applying the Standard for the first time.. The above have been adopted by the European Union with effective date of 01/01/2023.
Amendments to IAS 1 "Classification of Liabilities as Current or Non-current" (effective for annual periods starting on or after 01/01/2023)
In January 2020, the IASB issued amendments to IAS 1 that affect requirements for the presentation of liabilities. Specifically, they clarify one of the criteria for classifying a liability as non-current, the requirement for an entity to have the right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting period. The amendments include: (a) specifying that an entity’s right to defer settlement must exist at the end of the reporting period; (b) clarifying that classification is unaffected by management’s intentions or expectations about whether the entity will exercise its right to defer settlement; (c) clarifying how lending conditions affect classification; and (d) clarifying requirements for classifying liabilities an entity will or may settle by issuing its own equity instruments. Furthermore, in July 2020, the IASB issued an amendment to defer by one year the effective date of the initially issued amendment to IAS 1, in response to the Covid-19 pandemic.
The Group will examine the impact of the above on its Financial Statements, though it is not expected to have any. The above have not been adopted by the European Union.
Amendments to IAS 1 "Presentation of Financial Statements" (effective for annual periods starting on or after 01/01/2023)
In February 2021, the IASB issued narrow-scope amendments that pertain to accounting policy disclosures. The objective of these amendments is to improve accounting policy disclosures so that they provide more useful information to investors and other primary users of the financial statements. More specifically, companies are required to disclose their material accounting policy information rather than their significant accounting policies. The Group will examine the impact of the above on its Financial Statements, though it is not expected to have any. The above have not been adopted by the European Union.
Amendments to IAS 8 "Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors: Definition of Accounting Estimates" (effective for annual periods starting on or after 01/01/2023)
In February 2021, the IASB issued narrow-scope amendments that they clarify how companies should distinguish changes in accounting policies from changes in accounting estimates. That distinction is important because changes in accounting estimates are applied prospectively only to future transactions and other future events, but changes in accounting policies are generally also applied retrospectively to past transactions and other past events. The Group will examine the impact of the above on its Financial Statements, though it is not expected to have any. The above have not been adopted by the European Union.
Amendments to IAS 12 "Income Taxes: Deferred Tax related to Assets and Liabilities arising from a Single Transaction" (effective for annual periods starting on or after 01/01/2023)
In May 2021, the IASB issued targeted amendments to IAS 12 to specify how companies should account for deferred tax on transactions such as leases and decommissioning obligations — transactions for which companies recognise both an asset and a liability. In specified circumstances, companies are exempt from recognising deferred tax when they recognise assets or liabilities for the first time. The amendments clarify that the exemption does not apply and that companies are required to recognise deferred tax on such transactions. The Group will examine the impact of the above on its Financial Statements, though it is not expected to have any. The above have not been adopted by the European Union.
Amendments to IFRS 17 "Insurance contracts: Initial Application of IFRS 17 and IFRS 9 — Comparative Information" (effective for annual periods starting on or after 01/01/2023)
In December 2021, the IASB issued a narrow-scope amendment to the transition requirements in IFRS 17 to address an important issue related to temporary accounting mismatches between insurance contract liabilities and financial assets in the comparative information presented when applying IFRS 17 "Insurance Contracts" and IFRS 9 "Financial Instruments" for the first time. The amendment aims to improve the usefulness of comparative information for the users of the financial statements. The Group will examine the impact of the above on its Financial Statements, though it is not expected to have any. The above have not been adopted by the European Union.
Effect of adjustment due to the change in International Accounting Standard (IAS) 19 "Employee benefits"
The International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) decision on Attributing Benefit to Periods of Service under a defined benefit plan, in accordance with International Accounting Standard (IAS) 19 "Employee Benefits".
The International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee issued the final agenda decision in May 2021, under the title "Attributing Benefits to Periods of Service" (IAS 19), which includes explanatory material regarding the way of distribution of benefits in periods of service following a specific defined benefit plan proportionate to that defined in Article 8 of Law 3198/1955 regarding provision of compensation due to retirement (the "Labor Law Defined Benefit Plan").
This decision differentiates the way in which the basic principles and regulations of IAS 19 have been applied in Greece in the previous years, and therefore, according to what is defined in the "IASB Due Process Handbook (par 8.6)", entities that prepare their financial statements in accordance with IFRS are required to amend their Accounting Policy accordingly.
Prior to the issuance of the agenda decision, the Group applied IAS 19 attributing the benefits defined under Article 8, Law 3198/1955, Law 2112/1920, and its amendment by Law 4093/2012 in the period from hiring until the employee retirement date.
The application of this final agenda decision in the accompanying consolidated financial statements has led to attributing benefits in the last 16 years until the date of employee retirement following the scale recorded in Law 4093/2012.
Based on the above, the aforementioned final decision of the Committee's agenda has been will be treated as a Change in Accounting Policy, applying the change retrospectively from the beginning of the first comparative period, in accordance with paragraphs 19-22 of IAS 8.
The following tables present the effect of implementing the final agenda decision regarding every affected specific item of the financial statements. The table does not include the items non-affected by the change in accounting policy:
| (Amounts in thousands €)
Extract Statement of Financial Position
|Adjustment IAS 19
|Liabilities for pension plans
| (Amounts in thousands €)
Extract Statement of Financial Position
|Adjustment IAS 19
|Liabilities for pension plans
| (Amounts in thousands €)
Extract Statement of Comprehensive Income
|Actuarial Gain Losses
|Cost of Goods sold
| (Amounts in thousands €)
Extract Statement of Comprehensive Income
|Actuarial Gain Losses
|Cost of Goods sold
Preparations of financial statements under IFRS requires the management to apply judgments, make estimates and use assumptions that affect publisized amounts of assets and liabilities as well as disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities as at the financial statements preparation date and publicized amounts of revenue and expenses for the reporting period. The actual results may differ from estimated.
Estimations are reassessed on an on-going basis and are based on both — past experience and other factors, such as expectations of future events deemed reasonable under the current conditions.
The applied accounting principles and judgments of the management, apart from those pertaining to estimates, that have the most significant effect on the amounts, recognized in the financial statements, mainly pertain to the following:
- Recoverability of receivables
Allowances for doubtful receivables are based on historical date on recoverability of receivables and take into account the expected credit risk. The method, applied by Company, facilitates calculating the expected credit losses over the life of its receivables. The methods is used on past experience, but is adapted in order to reflect projections for the future financial condition of customers and economic environment. Balancing historical data and future financial conditions with the expected credit losses requires applying significant estimates. The amount of the allowance is recognized as an expense in other operating expenses in the income statement.
- Obsolesce of inventory
Adequate allowances are made for obsolete, useless and slow moving inventory. Impairment in net realizable value of inventory and other losses are recorded in the income statement for the period when incurred.
2 Estimates and assumptions
Estimating specific amounts, included or affecting financial statements and related disclosures required making assumptions in respect of values or circumstances that cannot be known with certainty at the time of financial statements preparation. Significant accounting estimate is defined as an estimate significant to the company's financial position and results, which requires the most difficult, subjective or complex management judgments, often arising from the need to make estimates regarding the effect of assumptions that are uncertain. The Group assesses such assumptions on an on-going basis, taking into close consideration historical data and experience, discussions with experts, current trends and other methods considered appropriate, under the effective conditions, in line with the projections as to how the change in the future.
Significant accounting estimates and judgments of the Management applied under the preparation of the current financial statements are consistent with those applied in the annual financial statements as of December 31st 2020. The following issues are to be noted following the above and in particular, regarding the financial statements as of 31/12/2021:
- Goodwill impairment estimates
The Group tests goodwill for potential impairment on annual basis and whenever events or circumstances indicate that impairment may be effective (ex. a major adverse change in the corporate environment or a decision to sell or dispose of a reporting unit). Determining whether an impairment is effective requires valuation of the respective reporting unit, estimated applying a discounted cash flow method. When deemed available and as appropriate, comparative market multiples are applied in order to verify the results arising from discounted cash flows. When applying the particular method, the Management relies on a number of factors, including actual operating results, future business plans, economic projections and market data.
Should this analysis indicates the existence of goodwill impairment, its measurement requires estimating fair value of every identified tangible or intangible asset. In this case, cash flow approach is applied, as recorded above, by independent appraisers, whenever deemed appropriate.
Other identified intangible assets with defined useful lives, subject to amortization, are tested for impairment through comparing the carrying amount to the aggregation of undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. Intangible assets with indefinite lives are tested for impairment on annual basis applying a fair value method such as discounted cash flows.
The Group tests goodwill for impairment annually, in accordance with the accounting principles recorded in Note 4. The recoverable amounts of cash-generating units have been determined based on value-in-use calculations, which require the use of accounting estimates.
- Budgeting of construction contracts
The accounting treatment of revenues and expenses of a construction contract depends on whether the final result of the contract can be estimated reliably (and is expected to generate profit or loss for the beneficiary). When the result of a construction contract can be estimated reliably then all the respective revenues and expenses related to the contract are recognized during the term of the contract. The Group uses the percentage of completion method to determine the appropriate amount of the respective revenue and expense to be recognized in every period. The percentage of completion is calculated as the contracted cost realized over the total budgeted cost of construction for each project. Therefore, significant management estimates are required with regard to the gross result regarding the completed construction (estimated cost of execution).
- Income tax
The Group and the Company are subject to income tax in numerous tax jurisdictions. Significant estimates are required while determining provisions for income tax. There are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain during the ordinary course of business. The Group and the Company recognize liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues based on estimates of the extent, to which additional taxes will be imposed. When the final tax outcome of these matters is different from the initially recorded amount, such differences will affect the income tax and provisions for deferred tax in the period when the aforementioned amounts have been determined.
- Provisions for rehabilitation of environment
The Group operates in the sectors of Metallurgy, Sustainable Engineering Solutions, Electricity and Natural Gas Trading. The environmental impacts, potentially to be generated by the aforementioned activities, may cause rehabilitation costs. For the determination of environmental rehabilitation costs and the time they may occur, the Group performs the relevant analyzes and makes assessments using specialized technical and legal consultants. The Group makes a provision in its financial statements for the estimated environmental rehabilitation costs when these are considered probable.
- Contingent liabilities
In the ordinary course of its business operations, the Group gets involved in litigations and claim. The Management estimates that none of the resulting settlements would materially affect the financial position of the Group as at December 31, 2020. However, determining contingent liabilities relating to litigations and claims is a complex procedures, involving s judgments as to potential outcomes and interpretation of legislations and regulations.
Change in accounting estimation
On 01/01/2021, the Group decided to change the useful life of renewable energy sources (RES). Specifically, the remaining useful life of renewable energy parks was adjusted to 35 years from 30 years in which it was initially estimated. The reasons for that estimation are:
On 01/01/2021, the Group decided to change the useful life of natural gas-powered plants. Specifically, the remaining useful life of power plants was adjusted to 35 years from 30 years in which it was initially estimated. The reasons for that estimation are:
— There is experience of at least 10 years from the operation of power plants. These power plants have had a good performance during these years and the maintenance cost hasn’t increased. The availability of the power plants, ranges at levels above 95% while their reliability is close to 100%, because of the reliability of the manufacturers and the right maintenance, during their operation.
— Following decarbonization of the energy market, the natural gas-powered plants have already started to occupy the share of the withdrawn lignite units in the market, being the main units of electricity production both at peak hours and at the hours during which the RES do not produce.
— The critical role of power plants to stabilize and secure the energy system, due to the ever-increasing penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES), especially since there is no other more technically reliable and cost-effective solution, combined with exceptional reliability and the high-cost construction of a new natural gas power plant, contribute to their operation for at least 35 years. The Management assessed the change in accounting estimate as realistic.
The Group changed this accounting estimate of useful life, using the provisions of IAS 8 "Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors" by estimating that the rate of future benefits of fixed assets has changed and adjusting accordingly the depreciation rate to reflect the new rate. The positive effect of the change in accounting estimate for the period 01/01/2021 — 31/12/2021 amounted to 5,010 thousand and affected the tangible, intangible assets and results of the Group for the same period.
On 01/01/2021, the Group altered the useful life of the capitalized association commissions of the retail partners in the Electricity and Natural Gas Segment, which are in charge of attracting customers. Specifically, the useful life was adjusted to 3 years versus 2 years, at which it was initially estimated. The reason behind it is that nowadays, statistics show that the average customer is represented by electricity and gas supply companies in a three-year period.
Management assesses the change in accounting estimate as completely realistic. The Group changed this accounting estimate of useful life, using the provisions of IAS 8 "Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors", estimating that the rate of future benefits incorporated in the specific fixed assets changed, respectively adapting the amortization rate, so that it should reflect the newly formed rate. The positive effect arising from the change in the accounting estimate for 01/01/2021-31/12/2021 stood at € 2,535 thousand and affected the intangible assets and the Group results for the reporting period.
The Company Mytilineos S.A. which resulted from the merger of its subsidiaries METKA, ALUMINUM OF GREECE, PROTERGIA and PROTERGIA THERMO AGIOS NIKOLAOS presents separately the result from discontinued operations as described below.
In 2009, applying IFRS 5 "Non-current assets held for sale & discontinued operations", the assets and liabilities of the subsidiary company SOMETRA S.A. were presented separately, regarding which a decision was made on January 26, 2009 on temporary suspension of the production activity of the Zinc-Lead production plant in Romania, and presents also the amounts recognized in the income statement separately from continuing operations. Given the global economic recession, there were no feasible scenarios for the alternative utilization of the aforementioned financial assets.
Consequently, since 2011, by applying par. 13 of IFRS 5 "Non-current assets Held for Sale" Zinc-Lead ("SOMETRA S.A.") production ceases to be an asset held for sale and is considered as an asset to be abandoned. The assets of its operations returned to continuing operations while at the same time, it continued to show separately the result of the discontinued operation in the income statement.
On 31/12/2015, SOMETRA S.A., contributed the Zinc-Lead activity, through a spin — off process, to its newly established subsidiary Reycom Recycling S.A. (REYCOM). The said spin — off is part of the "Mytilineos Group" restructuring process, regarding the Zinc-Lead discontinued operation, targeting on the production of Zn & Pb oxides through the development of a recycling operation of metallurgical residues. Within the same frame, on 29/11/2016 the cross-border merger of the subsidiary REYCOM and the subsidiary company ALUMINUM OF GREECE (ATE) was completed.
(a) Subsidiaries: Subsidiaries are entities (including special purpose entities) in which the Group holds more than half of the voting rights or has the ability to direct the financial and operating principles followed.
The existence of potential voting rights that are exercisable at the time the financial statements are prepared, is taken into account in order to determine whether the parent exercises control over the subsidiaries.
Subsidiaries are consolidated completely (full consolidation) using the purchase method from the date that control over them is acquired and cease to be consolidated from the date that control no longer exists.
The acquisition of a subsidiary by the Group is accounted for using the purchase method. The paragraph "2.8 Intangible Assets — Goodwill" presents the accounting treatment of goodwill. The acquisition cost of a subsidiary is the fair value of the assets given as consideration, the shares issued and the liabilities undertaken on the date of the acquisition plus any costs directly associated with the transaction. The individual assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities that are acquired during a business combination are valued during the acquisition at their fair values regardless of the participation percentage. The acquisition cost over and above the fair value of the individual assets acquired is booked as goodwill. If the total cost of the acquisition is lower than the fair value of the individual assets acquired, the difference is immediately transferred to the income statement.
Inter-company transactions, balances and unrealized profits from transactions between Group companies are eliminated in consolidation. Unrealized losses are also eliminated except if the transaction provides indication of impairment of the transferred asset. The accounting principles of the subsidiaries have been amended so as to be in conformity to the ones adopted by the Group.
Transactions with minorities: For the accounting of transactions with minority, the Group applies the accounting principle based on which such transactions are handled as transactions with third parties beyond the Group. The sales towards the minority create profit and losses for the Group, which are booked in the results. The purchases by the minority create goodwill, which is the difference between the price paid and the percentage of the book value of the equity of the subsidiary acquired.
(b) Associates: Associates are companies on which the Group can exercise significant influence but not "control" and which do not fulfill the conditions to be classified as subsidiaries or joint ventures. The assumptions used by the group imply that holding a percentage between 20% and 50% of a company’s voting rights suggests significant influence on the company. . Investments in associates are initially recognized at cost and are subsequently valued using the Equity method. At the end of each period, the cost of acquisition is increased by the Group’s share in the associates’ net assets change and is decreased by the dividends received from the associates.
Any goodwill arising from acquiring associates is contained in the cost of acquisition. Whether any impairment of this goodwill occurs, this impairment decreases the cost of acquisition by equal charge in the income statement of the period.
After the acquisition, the Group’s share in the profits or losses of associates is recognized in the income statement, while the share of changes in reserves is recognized in Equity. The cumulated changes affect the book value of the investments in associated companies. When the Group’s share in the losses of an associate is equal or larger than the carrying amount of the investment, including any other doubtful debts, the Group does not recognize any further losses, unless it has guaranteed for liabilities or made payments on behalf of the associate or those that emerge from ownership.
Unrealized profits from transactions between the Group and its associates are eliminated according to the Group’s percentage ownership in the associates. Unrealized losses are eliminated, except if the transaction provides indications of impairment of the transferred asset. The accounting principles of the associates have been adjusted to be in conformity to the ones adopted by the Group.
(c) Investments in joint ventures: Investments in joint ventures are classified according to IFRS 11″ Joint Arrangements", or "Joint Operation", or "Joint Venture". The classification is based upon each participating parties’ rights and obligations arising from the joint arrangement. The Group by assessing the nature and the special characteristics of the investments, classifies, as at 31/12/2019, an investment in joint venture recognized based on the equity method.
Investments in joint ventures according to the equity method are initially recognized at cost and are then adjusted to the Group's share of profits or losses and other comprehensive income of the joint ventures. When the Group's share of losses of a joint venture is equal to or exceeds its interest in that joint venture, the Group does not recognize any further losses unless it has entered into commitments or has made payments on behalf of the joint venture.
Unrealized gains on transactions between the Group and joint ventures are eliminated by the Group's participation in the joint ventures. Unrealized losses are also eliminated unless there is evidence of the transaction for impairment of the asset transferred.
In the context of RSD Business Unit operations, the Group establishes or acquires entities, expected to obtain or hold licenses for photovoltaic or wind farms for the purpose of their development and resale. As far as such entities are concerned, it is established that their assets and liabilities that do not constitute "business" as defined in IFRS 3 and do not fall within the scope of this standard, Therefore, those transactions are accounted for as acquisition of assets.
The accounting treatment of such established or acquired companies is conducted through their recognition as inventory, since the Group aims to study, supply and construct power plants and further resell them at the end of their construction to buyers.
In the financial statements the above companies are recognized at acquisition values or deemed cost, as determined on the basis of fair values at the date of their transition or establishment. Subsequent expenses are recognized in addition to their carrying amount if the future financial benefits are probable to flow to the Group and their cost can be measured reliably.
When their carrying amounts exceed their recoverable amount, the difference (impairment) is directly recognized as an expense in the income statement.
In the event of short-term operation of the above entities by the Group, whenever it bears the risks and benefits of their operations, their assets, liabilities, income and expenses for the period until their disposal are recognized.
MYTILINEOS Group is active in four main operating business segments: a) Metallurgy, b) Sustainable Engineering Solutions, c) International Renewables and Storage Development and d) Power & Gas. In accordance with the requirements of IFRS 8, management generally follows the Group's service lines, which represent the main products and services provided by the Group, in identifying its operating segments. Each of these operating segments is managed separately as each of these service lines requires different technologies and other resources as well as marketing approaches.
(a) Functional currency and presentation currency
The measurement of the items in the financial statements of the Group’s companies is based on the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Group operates (operating currency). The consolidated financial statements are reported in euros, which is the operating currency and the reporting currency of the parent Company and all its subsidiaries.
(b) Transactions and balances
Transactions in foreign currencies are converted to the operating currency using the rates in effect at the date of the transactions.
Profits and losses from foreign exchange differences that result from the settlement of such transactions during the period and from the conversion of monetary items denominated in foreign currency using the rate in effect at the balance sheet date are posted to the results. Foreign exchange differences from non-monetary items that are valued at their fair value are considered as part of their fair value and are thus treated similarly to fair value differences.
The Group’s foreign activities in foreign currency (which constitute an inseparable part of the parent’s activities), are converted to the operating currency using the rates in effect at the date of the transaction, while the asset and liability items of foreign activities, including surplus value and fair value adjustments, that arise during the consolidation, are converted to euro using the exchange rates that are in effect as at the balance sheet date.
Exchange differences arising from financial assets and liabilities (intragroup loans and long-term non-commercial receivables/liabilities for which repayment is not planned or unlikely to occur in the foreseeable future) that have been identified as part of an entity's net investment in a subsidiary company operating abroad are recognised in the income statement of its individual financial statements an entity and/or a subsidiary. In the consolidated financial statements the above foreign exchange differences are recognised in other comprehensive income and are included in the Balance Sheet conversion reserve. When the repayment of the above financial assets and liabilities is planned or is likely to occur in the foreseeable future, the accumulated bills of exchange in the reserves are reclassified in the consolidated income statement as the financial assets cease to be part of an entity's net investment in a subsidiary company operating abroad. The same accounting treatment of reclassification is applied during the sale of the subsidiary.
(c) The Group’s companies
Operating results and equity of all Group’s companies (excluding those opening in hyperinflationary economies), that their operating currency is not the same as Group’s, are translated to Group’s presentation currency as follows:
(i) Assets and liabilities are presented and translated according to the exchange rate at the balance sheet date.
(ii) Sales and expenses of the Profit and Loss statement are translated according to the average exchange rate of the balance sheet period.
(iii) Foreign exchange differences arising from the above are registered at equity account "Translation Reserve".
Fixed assets are reported in the financial statements at acquisition cost or deemed cost, as determined based on fair values as at the transition dates, less accumulated depreciations and any impairment suffered by the assets. The acquisition cost includes all the directly attributable expenses for the acquisition of the assets.
Subsequent expenditure is added to the carrying value of the tangible fixed assets or is booked as a separate fixed asset only if it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the Group and their cost can be accurately and reliably measured. The repair and maintenance cost is booked in the results when such is realized.
Depreciation of tangible fixed assets (other than Land which are not depreciated) is calculated using the straight line method over their useful life, as follows:
The residual values and useful economic life of tangible fixed assets are subject to reassessment at each balance sheet date. When the book value of tangible fixed assets exceeds their recoverable amount, the difference (impairment) is immediately booked as an expense in the income statement.
Upon sale of the tangible fixed assets, any difference between the proceeds and the book value are booked as profit or loss to the results. Expenditure on repairs and maintenance is booked as an expense in the period they occur.
Self-constructed tangible fixed assets constitute an addition to the acquisition cost of tangible assets at a value that includes the direct cost of employee’s salaries (including the relevant employer’s contributions), the cost of materials used and other general costs.
The intangible assets include Goodwill, the rights of use of Property, plant and equipment, software licenses, licenses for the production, installation and operation of renewable energy assets and thermal energy assets, the environment rehabilitation expenditure.
Software Software licenses are valued in cost of acquisition less accumulated depreciation. Costs that improve or prolong the performance of software programs beyond the original technical specifications or software conversion costs are included in the cost of acquiring intangible assets with a prerequisite that they can be measured reliably. Software licenses are valued in cost of acquisition less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight line method during the assets’ useful life that range from 1 to 3 years. Maintenance of software programs is recognized as an expense when the expense is incurred
Production, Installation and Operation Licenses of Renewable Energy Assets and Thermal Energy Assets: The different types of licenses entitles the group either with the right to construct an energy asset or the right to produce and sell energy. Current market conditions provide adequate evidence about the recoverable amount of such licenses.
The Group, upon acquisition, recognized these permits as intangible assets at their fair value and then measured them using the cost model, according to which the asset is measured at cost (which is the acquisition cost of the asset value as described above) less depreciation and any impairment provision. Therefore the Group has recognized licenses as intangible assets at fair value less depreciation and less any provision for impairment. Depreciation is carried out using the straight-line method over the useful life of those items, which is 30 years for gas-fired power plants and 20 years for renewable electricity. The Group runs impairment tests on a yearly basis using the following methodology:
i) Attach possibility factors according to management estimation regarding the construction of assets under license.
ii) Runs Discounted Cash Flows (DCF) methodology using assumptions prevailing at the energy market. The period regarded by the management for provisions exceeds the five years encouraged by IAS 36 as, especially for the renewable energy assets, there is satisfactory visibility for a substantially longer period.
iii) The final recoverable amount is calculated for a total portfolio of either renewable or thermal energy assets by multiplying the overall possibility factor with the outcome of the DCF valuation.
iv) Finally, the Group compares the recoverable value calculated to be the value-in-use of the assets with their carrying amounts.
When the recoverable value is less than the carrying amount an equal impairment provision is charged to the income statement.
Legal rights to explore mines: The legal rights to explore mines concern rights that the group has acquired mining mineral reserves in several geographical areas. In cost of the mining rights, apart from nominal value of the rights, any cost that relates to the initial evaluation of the rehabilitation cost of the area where work has been done, the commitment of the Group either during the acquirement of the right or as a result of its use for a certain time period. The depreciation time period that is adopted by the Group does not exceed 10 years.
Right of Use of Tangible Assets: Rights of exploitation of tangible assets that are granted in the frames of conventions of manufacture of work (compensative profits) are valued in cost of acquisition, which equals their fair value at the date of their concession, less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the "production units method".
Research and Development Expenses: Research and Development expenditures are recognized as expenses when they are realized. The expenses which arise from the developing programs (related to the design and the test of new or improved products) are capitalized if it is possible to produced future economic benefit. The other development expenditures are booked as an expense in the results when they are realized. Previous years’ development expenditures recognized as expenses, can not be capitalized in the future fiscal years. The capitalized development expenses are depreciated from the beginning of the product’s economic life using the straight line method during the period of the product’s future economic benefits. The Group’s depreciation period doesn’t exceed the 5 years.
Land Stripping & Restoration expenses: Land Stripping & Restoration expenses are capitalized and amortized using the unit of production method.
Goodwill on Acquisition: is the difference between the asset’s acquisition cost and fair value and the net assets of the subsidiary / associate company as at the acquisition date. During the acquisition date, the company recognizes this surplus value, emerged from acquisition, as an asset and presents it in cost. This cost is equal to the amount by which the acquisition cost exceeds the company’s share in the net assets of the acquired company.
After the initial recognition, the surplus value is valued at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. The surplus value is not depreciated, but is reviewed on an annual basis for possible decrease in its value (impairment), if there are events that indicate such a loss according to IAS 36.
Goodwill is allocated to cash-generating units for the purpose of impairment testing. A cash generated unit is the smallest identifiable group of assets generating cash inflows independently and represents the level used by the Group to organise and present each activities and results in its internal reporting. Impairment is determined for goodwill by assessing the recoverable amount of the cash-generating units, to which the goodwill relates. Where the recoverable amount (typically the value in use) of the cash-generating units is less than their carrying amount an impairment loss is recognised. Impairment losses relating to goodwill cannot be reversed in future periods. The Group performs its annual impairment test of goodwill as at 31 December.
In the case where acquisition cost is less than the company’s stake in the acquired company’s net assets, the former recalculates the acquisition cost and valuates the assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities of the acquired company. Any difference prevailing after the recalculation is recognized directly in the income statement as a profit.
Assets with an indefinite useful life are not depreciated and are subject to an impairment review annually and when some events suggest that the book value may not be recoverable any resulting difference is charged to the period’s results. Assets that are depreciated are subject to an impairment review when there is evidence that their value will not be recoverable. The recoverable value is the greater between the net sales value and the value in use. An impairment loss is recognized by the company when the book value of these assets (or cash generating unit- CGU) is greater than its recoverable amount.
Net sales value is the amount received from the sale of an asset at an arm’s length transaction in which participating parties have full knowledge and participate voluntarily, after deducting any additional direct cost for the sale of the asset, while value in use is the present value of estimated future cash flows that are expected to flow into the company from the use of the asset and from its disposal at the end of its estimated useful life.
i) Initial recognition
A financial asset or financial liability is recognized in the statement of financial position of the Group when it arises or when the Group becomes part of the contractual terms of the financial instrument.
Financial assets are classified at initial recognition and are subsequently measured at amortized cost at fair value through other comprehensive income and fair value through profit or loss.
Initially, the Group measures financial assets at fair value. Trade receivables (which do not contain significant financial assets) are carried at transaction price.
If a financial asset is to be classified and measured at amortized cost or at fair value through comprehensive income, it shall generate cash exclusively pertaining to capital and interest repayments of the initial capital. The business model applied by the Group for the purposes of managing financial assets refers to the way in which it manages its financial capabilities in order to generate cash flows. The business model determines whether cash flows will arise from collecting contractual cash flows, disposal of financial assets, or both. Acquisition or disposal of financial assets that require delivery of assets within a timeframe specified by a regulation or a contract is recognized as at the transaction date, i.e. as at the date when the Group makes a commitment to acquire or to dispose of the asset.
ii) Classification and subsequent measurement
To facilitate subsequent measurement purposes, financial assets are classified into the following categories:
a) Financial assets at fair value through profit and loss
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss include financial assets held for trading, financial assets designated at initial recognition at fair value through profit or loss, or financial assets that are required to be measured at fair value. Financial assets are classified as held for trading if they are acquired for sale or repurchase in the near future. Derivatives, including embedded derivatives, are also classified as held for trading, unless they are defined as effective hedging instruments. Financial assets with cash flows referring not only to capital and interest payments are classified and measured at fair value through profit or loss, irrespective of the business model.
b) Financial assets at amortized cost
The Group measures financial assets at amortized cost if both of the following conditions are met: (1) the financial asset is held in order maintain financial assets for the purposes of collecting contractual cash flows; and (2) the contractual terms of the financial asset generating cash flows at specified dates only pertain to capital and interest payments on the balance of the initial capital.
Financial assets which are measured at amortized cost, subsequently apply the Effective Interest Rate Method (EIR) and are subject to impairment. Gains and losses are recognized in profit or loss when the asset is derecognized, modified or impaired.
c) Financial assets at fair value through total comprehensive income
Upon initial recognition, the Group may decide to irrevocably classify its investment participations as equity instruments designated at fair value through total comprehensive income when they meet the definition of equity and are not held for trading. Classification is determined per financial instrument. Profits and losses from these financial assets are never recycled to profits or losses. Equity instruments designated at fair value through total comprehensive income are not subject to impairment test. The Group has decided to classify its non-listed shares into this category.
A financial asset is derecognized when:
- The rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired, or
- The Group has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has undertaken the commitment to fully pay the cash flows received without significant delay to a third party under an arrangement and has either (a) transferred substantially all the risks and the assets of the asset or (b) has neither transferred nor held substantially all the risks and estimates of the asset but has transferred the control of the asset.
The Group recognizes provision for impairment for expected credit losses regarding all financial assets not measured at fair value through profit or loss. Expected credit losses are based on the balance between all the payable contractual cash flows and all discounted cash flows that the Group expects to receive.
Regarding trade receivables, the Group applies simplified approach in order to calculate expected credit losses. Therefore, at every reporting date, provision for losses regarding a financial instrument is measured at an amount equal to the expected credit losses over its lifetime without monitoring changes in credit risk.
Fair value of financial assets traded on active markets (stock exchanges) is determined by the quoted prices effective as at the balance sheet date. Fair value of financial assets not traded on active markets is determined applying valuation techniques and assumptions based on market data at the end of the reporting period.
Inventories are valued at the lower of acquisition cost and net realizable value. The cost of finished and semi-unfinished products includes all the costs incurred to locate them at their current storage and processing point and consists of raw materials, labor, general industrial costs and packaging costs. The cost of inventories is determined by operating segment and by their nature, using acceptable measurement methods that are consistent with the financial statements preparation framework. The cost of inventories does not include financial expenses.
Net realizable value is the estimated sales price during the normal course of the company’s business less any relevant sales expenses. Provision for slow moving or depreciated stocks is made when deemed necessary.
Cash and cash equivalents include cash in the bank and in hand as well as short term highly liquid investments such as money market products and bank deposits and overdrafts, as well as other high liquidity investments that are directly convertible to specific amounts of cash that are subject to a non-significant risk of change in value.
For the purpose of preparing the consolidated statements of cash flows, cash available include cash and balances with banks as well as cash as stated above.
The Group classifies a long-term asset or a group of assets and liabilities as held for sale if their value is expected to be recovered principally through the disposal of the items and not through their use.
The key prerequisites for the classification of a long-term asset or a group of assets (assets and liabilities) as held for sale are the asset or the group available for direct sale in their current state and the completion of the sale depends only on from normal and formal conditions for sales of such items and the sale should be highly probable.
Immediately prior to the initial classification of the asset or group of assets and liabilities as held for sale, the asset (or all of the assets and liabilities included in the group) are measured using the IFRS applicable in each case.
Long-term assets (or groups of assets and liabilities) classified as held for sale are valued (after initial classification as above) at the lower of their value in the financial statements and their fair value less direct costs disposal, and the resulting impairment losses are recognized in the income statement. Potential increase in fair value in a subsequent measurement is recognized in the income statement but not in excess of the impairment loss initially recognized.
From the date when a long-term asset (or long-term assets included in a group of assets and liabilities) is classified as held for sale, no depreciation is accounted for on such long-term assets.
Expenses incurred for the issuance of shares reduce, after deducting the relevant income tax, the proceeds from the issue. Expenses related to the issuance of shares for the purchase of companies are included in the acquisition cost of the company acquired. Where any Group company purchases the Company’s equity share capital (Treasury shares), the consideration paid, including any directly attributable incremental costs is deducted from equity attributable to the Company’s equity holders until the shares are cancelled, reissued or disposed of. Where such shares are subsequently sold or reissued, any consideration received, net of any directly attributable incremental transaction costs, is included in equity attributable to the Company’s equity holders. Treasury stock does not hold any voting rights. Own shares of subsidiaries of the Group (which do not relate to shares of the parent company) are treated in the Group as assets available for sale.
The tax for the period comprises current income tax and deferred tax, i.e. the tax charges or tax credits that are associated with economic benefits accruing in the period but have been assessed by the tax authorities in different periods. Income tax is recognized in the income statement of the period, except for the tax relating to transactions that have been booked directly to Equity. In such case the related tax is, accordingly, booked directly to Equity.
Current income taxes include the short-term liabilities or receivables from the fiscal authorities that relate to taxes payable on the taxable income of the period and any additional income taxes from previous periods (tax audit differences).
Current taxes are measured according to the tax rates and tax laws prevailing during the financial years to which they relate, based on the taxable profit for the year. All changes to the short-term tax assets or liabilities are recognized as part of the tax expense in the income statement.
Deferred income tax is determined according to the liability method which results from the temporary differences between the book value and the tax base of assets or liabilities. Deferred tax is not booked if it results from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction, except for a business combination, which when it occurred did not affect neither the accounting nor the tax profit or loss.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are valued based on the tax rates that are expected to be in effect during the period in which the asset or liability will be settled, taking into consideration the tax rates (and tax laws) that have been put into effect or are essentially in effect up until the balance sheet date. In the event where it is impossible to identify the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences, the tax rate in effect on the day after the balance sheet date is used.
Deferred tax assets are recognized to the extent that there will be a future tax profit to be set against the temporary difference that creates the deferred tax asset.
Deferred income tax is recognized for the temporary differences that result from investments in subsidiaries and associates, except for the case where the reversal of the temporary differences is controlled by the Group and it is possible that the temporary differences will not be reversed in the foreseeable future.
Most changes in the deferred tax assets or liabilities are recognized as part of the tax expense in the income statement. Only changes in assets or liabilities that affect the temporary differences are recognized directly in the Equity of the Group, such as the revaluation of property value that results in the relevant change in deferred tax assets or liabilities being charged against the relevant Equity account.
Short-term employee benefits (except post-employment benefits) monetary and in kind are recognized as an expense when they accrued. Any unpaid amount is booked as a liability, while in the case where the amount paid exceeds the amount of services rendered, the company recognizes the excess amount as an asset (prepaid expense) only to the extent that the prepayment will lead to a reduction of future payments or to reimbursement.
Benefits for employment termination
Termination benefits are payable when employment is terminated before the normal retirement date, or whenever an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The Group's liabilities for retirement benefits concern both defined contribution plans and defined benefit plans. The accrued cost of defined contribution plans is recognized as an expense in the period in question. Retirement plans adopted by the Group are funded partly through payments to insurance companies or state social insurance funds.
Defined contribution plan
According to the defined contributions scheme, the (legal or implied) obligation of the company is limited to the amount that it has been agreed that it will contribute to the entity (i.e. pension fund) that manages the contributions and provides the benefits. Thus the amount of benefits the employee will receive depends on the amount the company will pay (or even the employee) and from the paid investments of such contributions. The payable contribution from the company to a defined contribution scheme, is either recognized as a liability after the deduction of the paid contribution, or as an expense.
Defined benefits plan
According to laws 2112/20 and 4093/2012 the Company pays to their personnel benefits for employment termination or retirement. The benefits are related to, employment years, remuneration amount and whether the employment was terminated or due to retirement. The maturity of the right to participate to these schemes, usually depends upon service years of the employee till retirement.
The liability that is reported in the balance sheet with respect to this scheme is the present value of the liability for the defined benefit less the fair value of the scheme’s assets (if there are such) and the changes that arise from any actuarial profit or loss and the service cost. The commitment of the defined benefit is calculated annually by an independent actuary with the use of the projected unit credit method. For discounting 2019 the selected interest rate is related to the tendency of iBoxx AA Corporate Overall 10+ EUR indices, consistent to IAS19 guidelines and suitable for long term provisions that consists of bonds corresponding to the currency and the duration relative to employees’ benefits.
A defined contribution scheme, defines based on several parameters such as age, service years, remuneration amount, certain obligations for defined benefits. The provisions relating to the period are included in personnel cost at company and Group P&L statements and consist of current and past employment cost, the pertinent financial cost, the actuarial gain or loss as well as any additional charges. Regarding not recognized actuarial gain or loss, amended IAS19R is adopted, that includes a series of amendments regarding accounting treatment of defined benefits scheme, amongst other:
— recognition of actuarial profit/(loss) in other comprehensive income statement
— non-recognition of annual return on benefits scheme in profit and loss accounts
— recognition of interest rate in liability account based on discount rate used in employee compensation program.
The Group recognizes Government Grants that cumulatively satisfy the following criteria: a) There is reasonable certainty that the company has complied or will comply to the conditions of the grant and b) it is probable that the amount of the grant will be received. Government Grants are booked at fair value and are systematically recognized as revenues according to the principle of matching the grants with the corresponding costs that they are subsidizing.
Government Grants that relate to assets are included in long-term liabilities as deferred income and are recognized systematically and rationally as revenues over the useful life of the fixed asset.
Provisions are recognized when the Group has present obligations (legal or constructive) as a result of past events, their settlement through an outflow of resources is probable and the exact amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated. Provisions are reviewed during the date when each balance sheet is compiled so that they may reflect the present value of the outflow that is expected to be required for the settlement of the obligation. Contingent liabilities are not recognized in the financial statements but are disclosed, except if the probability that there will be an outflow of resources that embody economic benefits is very small. Contingent claims are not recognized in the financial statements but are disclosed provided that the inflow of economic benefits is probable.
Income: Income includes the fair value of goods and services sold, net of Value Added Tax, discounts and returns. Intercompany revenue within the Group is eliminated completely. The recognition of revenue is done as follows:
— Construction Projects Contracts: Construction contracts refer to the construction of assets or a group of affiliated assets specifically for customers according to the terms provided for in the relevant contracts and whose execution usually lasts for a period of over one fiscal year.
The expenses that refer to the contract are recognized when occur.
Revenue from construction contracts is recognized based on the stage of completion of the project on the reporting date of the Statement of Financial Position.
The completion stage is measured based on the contractual cost that has been realized up to the balance sheet date compared to the total estimated construction cost of each project. When it is likely for the total contract cost to exceed the total income, then the expected loss is directly recognized in the period’s results as an expense.
For the calculation of the cost realized until the end of the period, any expenses related to future activities regarding the contract are excluded and appear as a project under construction. The total cost that was realized and the profit/loss that was recognized for each contract is compared with the progressive invoices until the end of the period.
When the realized expenses plus the net profit (less the losses) that have been recognized, exceed the progressive invoices, the difference appears as a receivable from construction contract customers in the account "Customers and other receivables". When the progressive invoices exceed the realized expenses plus the net profit (less the losses) that have been recognized, the balance appears as a liability towards construction contract customers in the account "Suppliers and other liabilities".
In cases where initial estimates may change, revenue, costs and / or completion rates are revised. These revisions may lead to increases or decreases in estimated earnings or costs and are presented in the results of the period in which the reasons for the revision are disclosed by the Management.
— Sale of goods: Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable and represents amounts receivable for goods sold and services provided in the normal course of the Group's operations, net of discounts, VAT and other taxes related to sales. The Group recognizes in the income statement the sale of the goods at the moment when the benefits and risks associated with the ownership of those goods are transferred to the client.
— Provision of services: Income from the provision of services is accounted for in the period during which the services are rendered, based on the stage of completion of the service in relation to the total services to be rendered.
— Electric energy:
Revenue from electricity generation: Electricity sales are recognized on the date when the relevant risks are transferred to the buyer, namely, according to the monthly electricity production provided to the Greek network and confirmed by the Energy Exchange Group and DAPEEP (ex LAGIE) (Operators of the Electricity Market) and ADMIE (Independent Power Transmission Operator). Revenue also includes ancillary services received from ADMIE.
Revenue from cross-border trade: Revenues from the sale of electricity to the domestic and foreign markets are based on the monthly measurements of the System Operators, Energy Exchange Group (ex LAGIE) (Greece) and the managers of other countries, which are announced to the Group. These monthly measurements include the total of imported and exported quantities sold to domestic and foreign markets. For these quantities sold, the Group issues the corresponding invoices every month.
Revenue from retail electricity sales: Revenues from electricity sales in the retail market are recognized during the period in which electricity is provided to customers and is measured on a monthly basis, according to the ADMIE and HEDNO measurements for medium voltage customers and with estimates based on the historical consumption that HELLENIC ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OPERATOR S.A. (HEDNO) announces for low voltage customers. Based on these measurements provided by ADMIE and HEDNO projections containing unit consumption and in conjunction with the contractual terms, each customer receives a monthly bill per meter. For low-voltage customers, the bills are up to HEDNO to send the actual consumption of the period, and then a clearing account is issued.
— Income Interest: Interest income is recognized on a time proportion basis using the effective interest rate. When there is impairment of assets, their book value is reduced to their recoverable amount which is the present value of the expected future cash flows discounted using the initial real interest rate. Interest is then booked using the same interest rate calculated on the impaired (new book) value.
— Dividends: Dividends are accounted for as revenue when the right to receive payment is established.
Expenses: Expenses are recognized in the results on an accrued basis. The payments made for operating leases are transferred to the results as an expense, during the time the lease is used. Interest expenses are recognized on an accrued basis.
Group company as Lessee: Leases are recognized in the statement of financial position as a right to use an asset and a lease obligation, the date on which the leased fixed asset becomes available for use. Each rent is divided between the rental obligation and interest, which is charged to the results throughout the lease, in order to obtain a fixed interest rate for the remainder of the financial liability in each period.
The rights to use assets are initially measured at their cost, and then reduced by the amount of accumulated depreciation and any impairment. The right to use is depreciated in the shortest period between the useful life of the component or its duration, with the fixed method. The initial measurement of the rights of use of assets consists of:
- The amount of the initial measurement of the lease liability,
- Lease payments made on or before the commencement date, reduced by the amount of discounts or other incentives offered,
- Initial costs, which are directly linked to the rent,
- Recovery costs.
Finally, they are adjusted to specific recalculations of the corresponding lease liability.
Lease liabilities are initially calculated at the present value of rents, which were not paid at the start of the lease. Discounted at the imputed rate of the lease or, if this interest rate cannot be determined by the contract, with the differential lending rate. (IBR). The differential lending rate is the cost that the lessee would have to pay to borrow the necessary capital in order to obtain an item of similar value with the leased asset, in a similar economic environment and with similar terms and assumptions.
Lease liabilities include net present value of:
- Fixed leases (including any in-substance fixed leases)
- Variable leases, depending on the rate
- Residual value expected to be paid
- The price of an option to purchase the underlying asset, if the lessor is almost certain to exercise it
- Penalties for termination of a lease if the lessor chooses this option.
After their initial measurement, the lease obligations are increased by their financial cost and are reduced by the payment of rents. Finally, they are reassessed when there is a change: a) to rents due to a change of index, b) to the estimation of the amount of residual value, which is expected to be paid, or c) to the assessment of a choice of purchase or extension, which is relatively Certain that it will be exercised or a right of termination of the contract, which is relatively certain that it will not be practiced.
The group and the company during the transition made use of the following practical facilities provided by IFRS 16 for leases classified as functional, in accordance with IAS 17.
Use of previously made assessments under applying IAS 17 and IFRIC 4 to determine whether a contract contains a lease, or whether a contract is a lease on the date of initial application.
Use of accounting treatment of operating leases for leases with a maturity of under 12 months from 1 January 2019.
Use of a single discount rate on a lease portfolio with similar characteristics.
Excluding initial direct costs for measuring the right-of-use asset at the date of initial application.
Group Company as lessor: When tangible assets are leased by leasing, the present value of rents is registered as a requirement. The difference between the gross amount of the claim and the present value of the claim is recorded as deferred financial income. The revenue from the lease is recognized in the usage results during the lease using the net investment method, which represents a constant periodic return. The group and the company do not contract with the status of lessor.
The distribution of dividends to the shareholders of the parent company is recognized as a liability in the consolidated financial statements at the date on which the distribution is approved by the General Meeting of the shareholders.
Pro forma figures (EBITDA, EBITDA margin, free cash flow, net debt) are not defined by the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Thus, these figures are calculated and presented by the Group in a way that provides a more fair view of the financial performance of its Business Sectors. The Group defines "Group EBITDA" as the Operating earnings before any interest income and expenses, investment results, depreciation, amortization and before the effects of any special factors. "Group EBITDA" is an important indicator used by Mytilineos Group to manage the Group’s operating activities and to measure the performance of the individual segments.
The special factors that affect the Group’s net profit / (losses) and EBITDA are the following:
a) the share in the EBITDA of associates when these are active in one of the Group’s reported Business Sectors and.
b) the effects of eliminations of any profit or loss from asset construction transactions of the Group with the associates.
It is noted that the Group financial statements, prepared according to IAS 1 and IAS 28, include the Group’s profit realized in connection with the construction of fixed assets on account of subsidiaries and associates, when these are active in one of its reported Business Segments. Such profits are deducted from the Group’s equity and fixed assets and released in the Group accounts over the same period as depreciation is charged. Consequently, for the calculation of EBITDA (operational results before depreciation), the Group does not eliminate the profit from the construction of fixed assets as its recovery through their use will effect only the profit after depreciation.
The Group states that the calculation of "Group EBITDA" may differ from the calculation method used by other companies/groups. However, "Group EBITDA" is calculated with consistency in each financial reporting period and any other financial analysis presented by the Group. Specifically financial results contain interest income/expense, while investment results contain gains/loss of financial assets at fair value through profit and loss, share of results in associates companies and gains/losses from the disposal of financial assets (such as subsidiaries and associates).
CO2 emissions are recognized according to the net liability approach through which, the Group recognizes liabilities from CO2 emissions when the actual emissions exceed the distributed emission rights from E.U. The liability is measured at fair value to the extent that the Group has the obligation of covering the deficit through the market. Emission rights acquired over the required quantities for covering the deficit are recognized as intangible assets at cost.
The Group uses Derivative financial instruments such as Commodity Futures and Currency Forwards in order to mitigate the risk related to its business activities along with the risk related to the funding of such activities.
At inception of the hedging transaction, the Group validates the hedging relationship between the underlying and the hedging instrument as far as its risk management strategy is concerned. The Group also verifies the hedging efficiency from the beginning of the hedging relationship and on a continuing basis.
All derivative financial instruments are initially recognized at fair value as at the date of settlement and are valued on a mark — to — market basis on each balance sheet date. The result of this valuation is recognized as an asset when positive and as a liability when negative.
When a derivative financial instrument is no longer regarded as hedging instrument any difference in its fair value is recognized in profit and loss.
There are three kinds of hedges:
A. Fair Value Hedging
Fair value hedging is regarded when hedging the exposure in the fluctuations of the fair value of a recognized asset, liability, contingent liability or part of them that could have a negative impact on results.
When hedging accounting, concerning fair value hedge, is followed then any profit or loss from revaluation is recognized in profit and loss. For non-derivative hedging instruments used to hedge foreign currency risk, only the foreign currency item in its book value will be recognized in profit or loss — the entire instrument needs to be re-measured. The gain or loss on the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk should be recognized directly in the income statement to offset the change in the carrying amount of the hedging instrument. This applies to items recognized at cost and available-for-sale financial assets. Any compensation ineffectiveness is recognized directly in the income statement.
Β. Cash Flow Hedging
The Group enters into Cash Flow Hedging transactions in order to cover the risks that cause fluctuations in its cash flows and arise either from an asset or a liability or a forecasted transaction and the change will affect the results. Examples of Group cash flow hedges include future foreign currency transactions subject to exchange rate changes as well as future sales of aluminum subject to changes in selling prices. Changes in the carrying amount of the effective part of the hedging instrument are recognized in Equity as "Reserve" while the ineffective portion is recognized in the Income Statement. The amounts accrued in equity are transferred to the income statement in the periods in which the hedged items are recognized in the income statement as in a prospective sale. When a hedging instrument has expired, sold, settled or does not qualify for hedging accounting all accumulated profit or loss recognized in Equity, stays in Equity until the final settlement of the underlying. If the underlying is not expected to be settled then any profit or loss recognized in Equity is transferred to profit and loss account.
C. Hedging of a Net Investment
Hedging of a foreign investment is regarded for accounting purposes in a way similar to cash flow hedging.
The effective part of the hedging result is recognized directly in Equity while any ineffective part is recognized in profit and loss. Accumulated profit or loss recognized in Equity is transferred in profit and loss account at the time of disposal of the investment.
Basic earnings per share are calculated by dividing the net profit attributable to the shareholders of the parent with the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during each accounting period, excluding the average of ordinary shares acquired as treasury shares.
The weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the accounting period and for all the periods presented is adjusted for events that have altered the number of ordinary shares in circulation without a corresponding change in resources.
The Company has implemented share-based payments for its employees and executives. In particular, under the effective agreements, the Company’s employees and executives are granted the option to receive equity securities (shares) of the parent company, given that certain conditions of vesting have been met. None of the existing equity-based payment agreement plans are settled in cash.
Services received in return for equity-based payments are measured at fair value. The fair value of the services of executives and employees, at the date when the stock option is granted, is recognized in accordance with IFRS 2 as an expense in the income statement, with a corresponding increase in equity, during the period in which the services, for which the options are granted, are received.
Total expenses of the options during the vesting period are calculated based on the fair value of the options provided at the granting date. The expenses are allocated over the vesting period, based on the best available estimate of the number of stock options expected to be vested. The fair value of the options is measured by adopting an appropriate valuation model to reflect the number of options for which the performance conditions of the plan are expected to be met.
Estimates of the number of option’s expected to be exercised are revised if there is an indication that the number of stock options, expected to be vested, differs from previous estimates. Any adjustment to the cumulative share-based compensation arising from the revision is recognized within the current period.
The number of vested options, finally exercised by the company’s employees and executives does not affect the expenses recorded within the period.